How to Test drives and troubleshooting in 2021

In order for reflect information to be beneficial, do now not store new documents before strolling UNFORMAT. In order for UNDELETE to be beneficial, do now not shop new files earlier than running UNDELETE. Utilities, including DrivePro or ScanDisk. However, in case you can't recover the root directory reliably, you will need to reformat the drive, then restore its contents from a backup. Symptom 17-eight. Difficult drive overall performance seems to be slowing down over time In absolutely all cases, diminishing force overall performance may be due to report fragmentation. To a far lesser extent, you might be confronted with a pc virus. Begin the pc with a “smooth” boot disk and ensure that no TSRs or drivers are being loaded.

 

After a easy boot, run your antivirus checker and make sure that there are not any memory-resident or document-primarily based viruses. If the machine tests clean for pc viruses, you ought to check for record fragmentation next. Start your defragmentation utility (inclusive of COMPRESS with computer gear or DEFRAG with DOS) and check to see the percentage of document fragmentation. If it has extra than 10% fragmentation, you need to bear in mind strolling the defragmentation application after preparing home windows. Earlier than defragmenting a pressure, reboot the system typically, start home windows, get admission to the digital reminiscence controls in your version of home windows, and shut down digital reminiscence. Then depart windows and boot the device “clean” once more. Restart your defragmentation application and proceed to defragment the disk.

 

This method may take numerous mins, relying on the scale of your drive. As soon as defragmentation is whole, reboot the gadget generally, begin windows, get right of entry to the virtual reminiscence controls in your model of home windows, and recreate a everlasting swap file to aid virtual memory. You have to now observe a overall performance improvement. Symptom 17-nine. The hard force accesses correctly, however the force mild stays on constantly A continuous LED indication isn't necessarily a hassle so long as the power seems to be working properly. Take a look at the force and pressure controller for pressure “light jumpers” examine the pressure itself for any jumper that could choose Latched mode vs. Hobby mode.

 

If no such jumpers are on the drive, check the force controller or motherboard. Set the jumper to activity mode to peer the drive light at some stage in get right of entry to simplest. Subsequent, bear in mind the opportunity of drive-light blunders messages. A few power sorts (specifically SCSI drives) use the force-hobby mild to signal drive and controller errors.

 

Check the drive and controller documents and see if any error is indicated by means of the light remaining on. Symptom 17-10. The hard drive isn't reachable and the drive mild remains on constantly This usually shows a reversed sign cable, that's most not unusual while upgrading or changing a pressure machine. In genuinely all instances, one quit of the signal cable is reversed. Be sure that each ends of the cable are set up properly (remember the fact that the red or blue stripe on one side of the cable represents pin 1).

 

If issues persist, update the force controller. It's far rare for a fault inside the pressure controller to reason this form of trouble, but if hassle persists, strive a regarded-top pressure controller board.

 

A “No fixed disk present” mistakes message seems on the monitor This type of hassle can occur during installation, or at any factor inside the computer’s operating lifestyles. Test the electricity connector first, and make certain the four-pin electricity connector is inserted properly and absolutely. If the pressure is being powered by using a Y-connector, be sure any period in-between connections are cozy. Use a voltmeter and measure the +five-V (pin four) and +12-V (pin 1) stages. If either voltage (in particular the +12-V supply) is surprisingly low or absent, update the power deliver. Subsequent, check the signal connector. Be sure that the ’s signa cable is hooked up securely at both the power and controller. If the cable is visibly worn or damaged, attempt a new one. If troubles persist, check the CMOS setup—input the CMOS setup recurring and see that all of the parameters entered for the drive are correct. Heads, cylinders, sectors per song, landing zone, and write precompensation must all accurate—in any other case, submit will no longer apprehend the power. You may also attempt “vehicle-detecting” the drive.

 

Additionally test for hardware conflicts. Ensure that no other growth devices in the device use the identical IRQs or I/O addresses utilized by your force controller. In that case, alternate the resources utilized by the conflicting device. If your power machine uses a SCSI interface, ensure that the SCSI cable is terminated nicely. If problems maintain, strive a recognised-good hard pressure. If a known-right force works as anticipated, your authentic pressure might be faulty. If problems stick with a known-true difficult drive, update the power-controller board.

 

The drive spins up, but the system fails to understand it Your pc would possibly flag this as a “tough-disk errors” or “difficult-disk controller failure” throughout machine initialization. Start via checking the signal connector. Ensure that the interface sign cable is inserted properly and absolutely at the power and controller. Try a new sign cable. Next, test any pressure jumpers, and notice that a number one (master) drive is configured as number one, and a secondary (slave) power is configured as secondary. For SCSI drives, see that each drive has a unique identification placing and check that the SCSI bus is terminated nicely. Input the CMOS setup ordinary and notice that every one of the parameters entered for the pressure are correct. Heads, cylinders, sectors in keeping with song, landing zone, and write precompensation must all accurate—otherwise, publish will now not recognize the pressure. Attempt the use of the “vehicle-come across” function if it's miles available.

 

If the CMOS is configured well, you should suspect a problem with the partition. Boot from a floppy disk and run FDISK to check the walls for your hard drive. Make sure that there may be at least one DOS partition. If the pressure is to be your boot pressure, the number one partition ought to be active and bootable. Repartition and reformat the power, if vital If issues persist, attempt a recognized-true tough force. If a known-good pressure works as expected, your unique drive might be defective. If a acknowledged-suitable hard force fails to work as expected, update the drive controller. If problems stick to a regarded-properly floppy pressure, replace the force-controller board. Symptom 17-13. The IDE pressure spins up when electricity is carried out, then rapidly spins down advantage The drive is faulty, or it isn't always speaking properly with its host machine. Test the electricity connector first. Be sure that the 4-pin energy connector is inserted properly and completely into the force. Always check the signal connector next, and see that the interface signal cable is inserted well and completely on the power and controller. Strive a brand new signal cable. Inspect the force jumpers—the number one (grasp) drive have to be configured as primary, and a secondary (slave) pressure should be configured as secondary. For SCSI drives, see that each drive has a unique id placing, and check that the SCSI bus is terminated nicely.

 

If issues persist, attempt a recognized-desirable difficult pressure. If a recognized-right force works as expected, your authentic pressure might be faulty. Symptom 17-14. A “zone no longer observed” error message seems at the screen This problem normally takes place after the pressure has been in operation for quite a while, and is generally the end result of a media failure. Luckily, a bad sector will handiest have an effect on one document. Attempt recuperating the file. Use a utility, which include SpinRite (from Gibson studies) or every other records-healing software, and try to recover the broken record.

 

Notice which you might be unsuccessful, and ought to restore the document from a backup later. Test the media itself. Use a disk application, which include ScanDisk, to assess the force, then locate and map out any bad sectors which can be positioned at the drive. If issues persist, carry out a low-degree format (if feasible). Lost sectors frequently arise as drives age and region identity facts degrades. LL formatting restores the arena IDs, but LL formatting is performed at the factory for IDE/EIDE and SCSI drives. If an LL formatting utility is available to your unique force (available right from the pressure manufacturer), and ScanDisk famous a large wide variety of horrific sectors, you might remember backing up the drive completely, jogging the LL utility, repartitioning, reformatting, then restoring the force. Eventually, if ScanDisk maps out bad sectors, you would possibly need to restore the ones files from a backup.

Symptom 17-15. A “1780 or 1781 errors” seems on the screen The traditional 1780 blunders code indicates a “difficult disk zero failure,” and the 1781 error code marks a “hard disk 1 failure.” begin the pc with a “clean” boot disk and make sure that no TSRs or drivers are being loaded. If you haven’t performed so already, run your anti-virus checker and be sure that there aren't any memory-resident or record-primarily based viruses. Subsequent, if you may get right of entry to the tough power once your machine is booted, possibilities are that the boot files are lacking or corrupt. Attempt a application, which include DrivePro’s force Boot Fixer or DISKFIX with laptop equipment. In any other case, you will want to repartition and reformat the disk, then repair disk files from a backup. Test the hardware next—if you can't get admission to the tough power, run a diagnostic which includes Windsor technology’ computer Technician. Take a look at the power and power controller. If the controller responds but the power does now not, attempt repartitioning and reformatting the hard force. If the pressure nonetheless doesn’t respond, replace the difficult drive outright. If the controller doesn’t reply, update the tough-power controller.

 

A “1790 or 1791 error” seems at the reveal The traditional 1790 error code suggests a “tough Disk zero mistakes,” although the 1791 error code marks a “hard Disk 1 errors.” test the sign connector first. Be sure that the interface sign cable is inserted properly and completely at the force and controller. Attempt a brand new sign cable. There may also be a problem with the power’s partition. Boot from a floppy disk and run FDISK to test the partitions in your difficult pressure. Make sure that there's at least one DOS partition. If the drive is to be your boot power, the primary partition have to be lively and bootable. Repartition and reformat the drive, if important. If problems persist, update the difficult drive.

 

If a recognised-good power works as predicted, your unique power is probably defective. If troubles stick to a regarded-suitable floppy drive, replace the power-controller board.

 

A “1701 error” appears at the screen The 1701 errors code indicates a tough-drive put up mistakes—the power did no longer pass its publish check. Check the power connector first, and make sure that the four-pin strength connector is inserted properly and absolutely. If the force is being powered by way of a Y connector, be sure that any interim connections are relaxed. Use a voltmeter and measure the +five-V (pin four) and +12-V (pin 1) levels.

If either voltage (especially the +12-V supply) is surprisingly low or absent, replace the strength supply. Input the CMOS setup ordinary and see that all of the parameters entered for the power are accurate. Heads, cylinders, sectors consistent with tune, touchdown region, and write precompensation should all accurate; in any other case, publish will no longer recognize the power. Strive “automobile detecting” the drive. If problems persist, perform a low-stage layout (if viable). ST506/412 and ESDI drives may require LL formatting, however LL formatting is executed at the manufacturing unit for IDE/EIDE and SCSI drives. If an LL-formatting application is available to your particular force (available right from the drive producer), you may don't forget backing up the force absolutely, jogging the LL application, repartitioning, reformatting, then restoring the power.

 

The system reviews random records, are looking for, or format errors Random errors rarely suggest a permanent hassle, however identifying the problem supply may be a time consuming undertaking. Take a look at the power connector first. Ensure that the 4-pin electricity connector is inserted well and completely. If the force is being powered with the aid of a “Y-connector,” be sure that any intervening time connections are comfy. Use a voltmeter and measure the +five-V (pin four) and +12-V (pin 1) degrees. If either voltage (specifically the +12-V deliver) is strangely low, replace the energy supply. Check the signal connector subsequent. Make sure that the interface signal cable is inserted nicely and absolutely on the force and controller. Strive a new signal cable. Also try re-routing the signal cable far from the energy-deliver or “noisy” expansion devices. Test the force orientation. If issues arise after remounting the drive in a distinct orientation, you would possibly want to repartition and reformat the drive, or return it to its authentic orientation. Strive relocating the drive-controller far from cables and “noisy” expansion gadgets. If your gadget has a “faster” mode, your ISA power controller would possibly have trouble working even as the device is in turbo mode. Take the device out of rapid mode. If the trouble disappears, strive a new force controller. The media might also be defective. Use a utility, together with experiment Disk, to test for and map out any bad sectors. Once awful sectors are mapped out, you may need to repair some files from your backup. Attempt the hard pressure and controller in any other gadget. If the pressure and controller paintings in some other gadget, immoderate noise or grounding problems are possibly inside the authentic system. Reinstall the power and controller inside the original machine and take away all greater enlargement forums. If the problem is going away, update one board at a time and retest the system till the hassle returns. The final board you inserted whilst the trouble back might be the culprit. If the hassle persists, there might be a ground problem on the motherboard. Strive replacing the motherboard as an absolute last effort. Symptom 17-19. A “horrific or missing Command Interpreter” error message seems that is a standard mistakes that appears whilst a drive is formatted in a single DOS version, but loaded with another. Compatibility issues arise while you blend DOS versions. Start by using booting the pc with a “easy” boot disk, and make certain no TSRs or drivers are being loaded. If you haven’t achieved so already, run your anti-virus checker and ensure that there are not any memory-resident or document-primarily based viruses. Ultimately, make sure that the pressure is partitioned


 

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